FOREIGN SPECIALISTS IN RUSSIAN MINING AND METALLURGY IN 18-19 CENTURIES.
Published: Zablotski E. Foreign Specialists in Russian Mining and Metallurgy in 18-19 Centuries. - In: Proceedings volume / 6th International Symposium Cultural Heritage in Geosciences, Mining and Metallurgy: Libraries-Archives-Museums, Idrija, 2003, pp.173-179.
The article includes information about foreign specialists in mining and metallurgy that worked in state mining works of Russia in 18-19 centuries. It mentions the main actions of invitation of the groups of specialists. The article is followed by the List of Specialists of 86 names that includes years of life and service, place of service and sources of information.
A few cases of invitation of the foreign mining specialists and founders are known since the end of the 15th century. But only from the 1630s when the building of the private iron works in the Central Russia had begun invitations of foreign specialists acquired a mass character. The Dutchmen Andreas Vinnius and Philimon Akema governed the building of works in these years. They had invited hundreds of masters from Holland ( founders, blacksmiths, arms workers). Foreign specialists took part in discovering iron and copper ore deposits and in building the first private metallurgic works at Ural. The practice of invitation of the foreigners, especially Germans and Englishmen by the private owners continued further. In 1700 a special newly created governmental institution took care of organizing and controlling the mining in Russia . It began building the state mining works, inviting the foreign specialists on the contract base and registering them in the mining service. The contribution of those specialists, especially the Germans and the Englishmen, in organization of mining, works and factories building, modernization of metallurgy and foundry and development of arms making in Russia was very significant [2,3]. The data about foreign specialists has been preserved in the archive funds of the central governmental institutions and are found in the Russian State Historical Archives (St.Petersburg). This data has also been reflected in many publications (see the List of Specialists).
Iohann Bluher a test master (probirer) from Saxony who was invited and was accepted to the mining service in 1700 was among the first [1,4,5,6]. In 1701 he was set to Saxony himself for inviting the foremen. They built and worked in the first mining works in the Olonets region and later in Ural. Among the invited specialists subordinate to Bluher was Andreas Beher who became later the mining manager of Altai mining works . Bluher came into the Russian history as an author of the proposal to introduce a corporate (collegial) management of the mining industry in Russia. Y.V. Bruce the closest associate of Peter the Great became a head of the Berg-College that was created in 1719. In 1713 the management of the Olonets mining (gun casting and copper) works was offered to Wilim Gennin, the Dutchman who had served in the Russian Artillery . In 1719 Gennin was sent to Holland, Saxony and Prussia where he made the contract with 16 foremen that were directed to the Olonets mining works. In 1722 when Gennin was appointed to Ural he took with him also some foreign workers. Bluher was an aide of Gennin that time. Due to their activity the ore mining was extended, the state iron-making and copper-fusing works were rebuilt and reconstructed. The foreign workers played a significant role in the work of those undertakings. The most well known of them were Zimmermann and Brandt the specialists for copper fusing, Weidel the manager of the mines, Heiderreich the author of the project of the Verh-Issetski metallurgic works, Kaisers the mechanics, Keller the manager of the gold mines (see the List). Reiser who came into the Russian service in 1710 and was a vice-president of the Berg-College also served in the Olonets mining works (as a manager of the Petrovski and the Konchezerski works during 1727-1730). Heinrich Schlatter, the Zurich native, served as a asessor in Berg-College. I. A. Schlatter, his son, was the great specialist in metallurgy of noble metals, the director of the Petersburg Mint and the President of the Berg-College [1,6,7]. The mining industry developed rapidly. In 1719 there worked 31,383 peasants ascribed to the mining works (their number increased to 31,2965 till the end of the 18th century). In 1727 there were 63 works in Russia: 63 iron works (among them 36 were private) and 15 copper works ( among them 8 private). From 1772 the export of the Russian iron began. In 1731 a steiger Simon Katschka, Austrian national from the small town of Topshau in Hungary, arrived to Russia. He worked in Ural for a long time (from 1751). His sons, grandsons and great grandsons who were born in Russia also became mining specialists [1,6,8].
The new stage of the development of mining and of the participation of the foreign specialists in it took place during the ruling of Anna Ioannovna when in 1736 by the initiative of ober-kamerir Biron berghauptman Schemberg was invited to Russia. In 1739 Schemberg in the rank of general-berg-director became the head of the new governing organ Berg-Directorium . 30 specialists, founders and steigers came with Schemberg mainly from Saxony. In the same year they were joined by 14 more Saxonian specialists who worked by the contract. They worked mainly in the mining works of Ural. For instance Focht run the Goroblagodatski works, I. A. Wagner was a senior of the group of the foreign specialists, Asman headed the works in the mines. The majority of those specialists left Russia in 1745. The sons of those who stayed were later on the mining service (Kirhner Jr., Daniil Makke, Daniil and Peter Mappa).
During the period of the rule of Elizabeth the majority of the state mining works became a private property of enterpisers of aristocratic origin. In 1750s 1760s foreign specialists mainly Saxonians continued to work in Altai and in Ural. Probably a part of them arrived to Russia during these years ( Balldauff, K. Wagner, Roll, Grall, a specialist on the hydraulic machines see the List). The information about them was picked up from the archive materials about the mining service of their sons.
From the beginning of 1760s the number of foreign specialists increased. The atmosphere of openness in the foreign policy and of high prestige of knowledge encouraged the flow of gifted foreigners to Russia and some of them came to the mining service (they are included into the List with those who worked by contract). In 1783-1784 in accordance with the directive of Catherine II the experienced mechanics from Hessen and a few English foremen were invited (see the List). Among those one should mention Davy, Grasshoff, Iossa who gave birth to the outstanding mining dynasties of Russia. The representatives of those dynasties worked during the 19th - the beginning of the 20th centuries [3,10,11,12]. In 1786 by the recommendation of Samuel Greig in order to improve the gun equipment of the Russian fleet a group of English mechanics and workers of the guns casting headed by Gascoigne, a director of the Carron iron-works near Falkirk in Scotland, was invited [3,6,13]. Gascoigne governed the work of the Olonets works and St.Petersburg foundries as well as their building and reconstruction. He also built a foundry in Lugansk where the deposits of the coal had been discovered. In 1795 the English specialists on the coal mining, the cast iron fusing and turning it into the iron headed by the founder and a steel specialist Walker a man who introduced the Russian specialists to the method of G. Court of fusing the iron with the use of reflecting air stoves - were invited to the Lugansk foundry . These workers were to organize for the first time fusing the cast iron with the use of coal and not charcoal (made of pine) as it was in Russia till then. In 1802 the English workers from the Lugansk moved to the command of A. A. Musin-Pushkin in order to organize the mining in Caucasus [14,15]. English specialists continued to work in Olonets, Petersburg, Tula and Ural works for many years. The German and the English specialists worked in the St.Petersburg Mint (medal makers Leberecht and Eichel and a stamp foreman Liezel). Adam Armstrong was Gascoignes aide and after his death in 1807 he became a director of the Olonets mining works and the Petersburg foundries. Armstrong was a gof the Edinburgh University and served as a home teacher in the Grieg family. He was the one who was given a mission of inviting the group of the English specialists headed by Gascoigne in 1786 [3,6,13]. In the Olonets works Armstrong turned to a specialist in industry, a talanted manager and inventor. He worked out the method of fusing the cast iron with the use of the pine trees instead of the coal. His son Roman Armstrong also became a mining specialist and was a manager of the Olonets works and the St.Petersburg Mint . Berger, a son of the Saxonian mining worker lived in Russia from 1779 and served in the Nerchinsk and the Ural mining works . Bauer, German and Cancrin who were already famous by their diverse activity also came to Russia. Bauer had a great knowledge in mining and was also a skilled engineer. He was invited in 1769 by Catherine II as an experienced military and he excelled in the battles of the Russo-Turkish war. Later he expressed himself as a builder of the canals and sea ports (Kronstadt, Riga) and worked on improving the river navigation. Bauer also worked on town planning and organization of the public services in Petersburg and Moscow, reconstructed and then directed for many years (from 1771) the large Staraya Russa salt works . German, a native of Marienhoff in Styria, came to Russia in 1782 and in 1784-1794 was a director of the Pyshminski steel works in Ural (the works was built by his own project using his experience in steel casting from Styria). From 1785 he inspected and studied the mining works in Siberia and in Ural and was elected as a foreign member of honor of the Academy of Sciences (1786) and as an ordinary Academician (1790). He published extensive works on the description of the mining works and the history of the mining in Russia. From 1801 he served as a manager of the Yekaterinburg works . His sons also were in the mining service. F.L. Cancrin, a father of the famous Russian statesman , a finance minister E.F. Cancrin, had already been known as a scientist and a specialist in mining and monetary industry before he came to Russia . He was appointed as a manager of the Staraya Russa salt works (1784) and was a member of Berg-College. His classical work on the mining (in 17 perts) was published in Russian translation.
During the epoch of Catherine II in 1773 there was established the first institution of higher education in mining which later became the Mining Institute. For many years a significant part of its graduates mining engineers consisted of the sons and the grandsons of the foreign specialists who bound their lives with Russia (Balldauffs, Clarkes, Davies, Ellerses Germans, Grasshoffs, Ilmans, Iossas, Katschkas, Konigs, Liezels, Prangs, Zimmermanns, and others). The sons of foreigners, mainly Germans of other professions military, physicians, commercials also studied in the Institute. Till 1830-1840s 10-20 % of the relatively tiny amount of the graduates were the foreigners descendants. With the opening of the Institute the mining industry in Russia began to be supplied with the native specialists. The invitation of the high qualified foreign specialists to the state mining works almost ended in the beginning of the 19 century. By that time the preparation of the native specialists of the middle and the low qualification steigers and foremen had extended. Their preparation began in 1720s directly in the mining regions. The foreign specialists played a definite role in their preparation as one of the conditions of their contracts was to train the Russian workers. The last great contract was signed in 1814 with a big group of the German foremen from Solingen and Klingental (more than 100 people) for work in the side arms factory that was created near the Zlatoust works at Ural . The arms makers and the foremen who produced steel for the blades came there. The amount of the German foremen was almost twice an amount of the Russians. The knowledge of the Germans contributed to the development of steel and iron metallurgy. Among the foreign specialists who arrived in the beginning of the 19th century one should mention Moor, the Austrian who headed the mineralogical expedition to Ural (1813-1824) and then was appointed as a director of the Yekaterinburg stone-cutting factory. Seymour and Crafford, the English mechanics the specialists on the steam engines worked in the St Petersburg foundry. The brothers Teth, the English mechanics worked at Ural. In 1841 the French native Cuarteraunt was invited to Russia for search for the ore deposits at Caucasus. The casting foreman Nordstrem from Finland worked in Ural from 1858.
The present review of the foreign specialists activity in Russia that demonstrates the variety of their compound and their participation in the development of mining and metallurgy does not claim to be complete. In a number of cases the years of service mentioned in the List attached are approximate. The names of many contract workers can be found only in the local archives of the mining regions. A great number of the foreigners foremen in the private factories. The aspiration to use the German and the English technology which was more up to date in that time was natural as well as the invitation of the specialists for its installation and exploitation. Sending the best graduates of the Mining Institute for training abroad (in Germany, Belgium, England, France) was also practiced.
LIST OF SPECIALISTS
Name(Russian name) * Nation * Years of life * Years of service * Place of work * Sources
1. Armstrong Adam (A. Adam Vasil''jevich) * (B) * 17621818 * 17851818 * Olonets mining works, St Petersburg foundries * [3,6,13]; RGIA:1349-4-72.
2. Asman Iohann Samuel * (G) * ?? * 1736? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
3. Balldauff * (G) * ?? * ~17501770 * Altaj & Nerchinsk mining works * RGIA:1349-4-5;1349-6-518.
4. Banner Iohann * (D) * ?? * 17351764 * Ural mining works * .
5. Bauer Friedrich Wilhelm (B Fjodor Vasil''jevich) * (S) * 17311783 * 17691783 * Starorusskij solt work * .
6. Beger Friedrich (B. Fjodor Fjodorovich) * (G) * 17541813 * 17871804 * Nerchinsk & Ural mining works, Berg-College * .
7. Beher Andreas (Bejer Andrej Venediktovich) * (G) * ?1751 * 17011751 * St Petersburg foundries, Tula arms factory, Altai mining works * ; RGIA:468-18-24,93;468-19-1246.
8. Bluher Iohann Friedrich (Bluer I.F.) * (G) * 1674? * 17001731? * Olonets & Ural mining works; Berg-College * [1,4,5,6].
9. Bome Karl Gotlib (Beme K.G.) * (G) * ?? * 17361745? * Ural mining works * .
10. Brandt Asmus Hilde * (G) * ?? * 1719? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
11. Cancrin Franz Ludvig (Kankrin F.L.) * (G) * 17381816 * 17841812 * Starorusskij solt work, Berg-College * ; RGIA:1349-4-4,,22;1349-6-500.
12. Clarke Basil (Klark Vasilij Jegorovich) * (B) * 1770? * 17871835 * Olonets mining works * [3,13]; RGIA:1349-4-72,83,135.
13. Clarke Basil Jr.? (Klark Vasilij) * (B) * ?? * 18051826 * St Petersburg foundries * ; RGIA:37-47-8,1014.
14. Clarke Charles (Klark Karl Jegorovich) * (B) * 1788? * 18091845? * Olonets mining works, Lugansk & St Petersburg foundries * ; RGIA:44-1-457;1349-4-72,83.
15. Clarke Matthew (Klark Matvej Jegorovich) * (B) * 1780? * 17921835? * Olonets mining works, St Petersburg foundries * ; RGIA:1349-4-72,83.
16. Crafford Francis * (B) * 1792? * 1818? * St Petersburg foundries * ; RGIA:1349-4-83.
17. Cuarteraunt A.I. * (Fr) * ?? * 18411848 * Caucasus * ; RGIA:44-1-204;37-25-1238.
18. Davy Alexander (Devi Alexandr Ivanovich) * (B) * 1762? * 17841820? * Olonets mining works, St Petersburg foundries * [3,10]; RGIA: 1349-4-83.
19. Drury Thomas (Druri Foma Vasil''jevich) * (B) * 1771? * 17871825? * Olonets mining works * ; RGIA:1349-4-72,83.
20. Duncan Jakob (Dunken Jakov Romanovich) * (B) * 1770? * 17901820? * St Petersburg Mint * ; RGIA:1349-4-166.
21. Eichel Jakob * (G) * ~1750? * 17791785? * St Petersburg Mint * RGIA: 1349-4-166.
22. Focht Karl * (G) * ?? * 17361745 * Ural mining works * .
23. Gascoigne Charles (Gaskojn Karl Karlovich) * (B) * ?1806 * 17861806 * Olonets mining works, Lugansk & St Petersburg foundries * [3,6,13].
24. Glenn * (B) * ?? * 1784? * Olonets mining works * .
25. Grall Iohann * (G) * ~1730? * 17601790 * Ural mining works * RGIA:1349-4-167.
26. Grasshoff Gottlib (Grasgof Bogdan Grigor''jevich) * (G) * ~1760? * 17831802? * Ural mining works * ; RGIA:1343-19-3930.
27. Hattermann Georg * (G) * ?? * 18121844 * Ural & Lugansk mining works * RGIA:44-1-340.
28. Heidenreich Iohann Gottfried * (G) * ?? * 1719? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
29. Herich (Gerih) * (G) * ?? * 17361746? * Altai mining works * RGIA:468-18-24.
30. Herrmann Benedict Franz Johann (German Ivan Filippovich) * (A) * 17551815 * 17811815 * Berg-College, Ural mining works * ; RGIA:37-39-376;570-8-35;1349-6-497.
31. Hoppe Benjamin * (G) * 17571825 * 17731825 * Nerchinsk mining works, St Petersburg Mint * RGIA:1349-4-166.
32. Iberfeld Friedrich * (G) * ?1813 * 1783? * Ural mining works * .
33. Iossa Gabriel * (G) * ~1750? * 17831800? * Ural mining works * ; RGIA:1349-6-498.
34. Jung-Hans * (G) * ?? * 1736? * Tula arms factory * .
35. Kaiser Friedrich Conrad * (G) * ?? * 1719? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
36. Kaiser Iohann Christian * (G) * ?? * 1719? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
37. Katschka Simon * (A) * ?? * 17311760? * Ural & Altai mining works * [1,6,8]; RGIA:468-18-76.
38. Keller Iohann Daniel * (G) * ?? * 1719? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
39. Kirhner * (G) ~1715-? * 17361760? * Ural mining works * RGIA:1349-6-499
40. Kluge Gottlib * (G) * ~1760? * 17831815? * Altai mining works * AC-1796; RGIA:1349-4-305.
41. Konig Iohann * (G) * ~1760? * 17831813? * Altai mining works * RGIA:468-18-485.
42. Kors Abraham * (G) * ?? * 1719? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
43. Leberecht Karl (L. Karl Aleksandrovich) * (G) * 17551827 * 17791825 * St Petersburg Mint * ; RGIA:1349-4-158,166.
44. Liezel Wilhelm * (G) * ~1780? * 18001815? * St Petersburg Mint * RGIA:37-46-1171;44-1-965.
45. Linder Daniil * (G) ~1790? * 18141825? * Zlatoustovsk arms factory * RGIA:37-47-8
46. Loygenmer * (B) * ?? * 17951820? * Tula arms factory * RGIA: 44-1-965
47. Ludloff Wilhelm (Ludlov Vasilij Fjodorovich) * (G) * 1779? * 18051820? * Ural mining works * ; RGIA:1349-4-84,165.
48. Major Alexander (Medzher A.) * (B) * ?? * 18101841 * Ural mining works * ; RGIA: 44-1-194.
49. Major Joseph (Medzher Iosif Jakovlevich) * (B) * ?1831 * 18101831 * Ural mining works * [17,19].
50. Makke Iohann Rudolf * (G) * ?? * 17361760? * Ural mining works * .
51. Mappa Iohann (M. Ivan) * (G) * ~1720? * 17361770? * Ural mining works * RGIA:1349-6-497
52. Maxwin (Maksvin) * (B) * ?? * 17951805 * Lugansk mining works, Caucasus * .
53. Moor Jakob (Mor Jakov Vasil''jevich) * (A) * 17871825 * 18131825 * Ural mining works * ;.RGIA:37-11-83,84,85;1349-4-83.
54. Norberg I.E. * (S) * ?? * 1788? * Ural mining works * ..
55. Nordstrem Andreas (N. Andrei Andrejevich) * (F) * ?? * 1858? * Ural mining works * ..
56. Prang Gottlib (P. Bogdan) * (G) * ~1760? * 17831815? * Altai mining works * RGIA:44-1-817;1343-27-6361.
57. Reiner * (G) * ?? * 1738? * Ural mining works * ..
58. Reiser Benedict (Rajzer Vikentij Stepanovich) * (G) * 16691755 * 17101730? * Olonets mining works, Berg-College * .
59. Retallik Basil (R. Vasilij Vasil''jevich) * (B) * 1790? * 18041845? * Olonets mining works * ; RGIA:1349-4-72,308.
60. Richter Iohann * (G) * ~1715? * 17361750? * Ural mining works * RGIA:1349-6-498
61. Roll Friedrich * (G) * ?? * 17601780? * Ural mining works * RGIA:1349-4-84
62. Rollinhoff Gottlib (R.Bogdan) * (G) * ?? * 18141825? * Zlatoustovsk arms factory * RGIA:37-45-10
63. Roper Timothy (R. Timofej Vasil''jevich) * (B) * ?? * 17861820? * Olonets & Ural mining works * [3,17]; RGIA: 1349-4-162.
64. Schell Elias Christian * (G) * ?? * 1719? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
65. Schemberg Kurt Alexander * (G) * ?? * 17361745 * Olonets & Ural mining works; Berg-Directorium * [1, 9].
66. Schlatter Heinrich * (G) * 1663? * 1719? * Berg-College * [1,6,7].
67. Schlegelmilch Karl * (G) * ~1760? * 17831810? * St Petersburg Mint * AC-1810; RGIA:1349-4-22.
68. Schneze G. * (G) * ?? * 17361760? * St Petersburg Mint * .
69. Schtor * (G) * ?? * 17361745? * Ural mining works * .
70. Schumann Iohann Gottlib * (G) * ?? * 17831800? * Ural mining works * AC-1796.
71. Seymour Robert * (B) 1766? * 1817? * St Petersburg foundries * ; RGIA:1349-4-83.
72. Smith Adam (Smit Adam Adamovich) * (B) * 1778? * 17901820? * Olonets mining works, Lugansk & St Petersburg foundries, St Petersburg Mint * ; RGIA:1349-4-83.
73. Smith Alexander (Smit Alexandr Adamovich) * (B) * 1762? * 17831830? * Olonets mining works, St Petersburg foundries * ; RGIA:1349-4-.72,83,135
74. Souther * (B) * ?? * 1786? * Ural mining works * .
75. Stratern George (S. Jegor Ivanovich) * (B) * 1776? * 18021820? * St Petersburg foundries * ; RGIA:1349-4-83.
76. Teth Edward ( Tet Eduard Eduardovich) * (B) * ?? * 1838? * Ural mining works * .
77. Teth Peter (Tet Pjotr Eduardovich) * (B) * ?? * 18361860 * Ural mining works * .
78. Ulich Iohann Gottlib * (G) * ?? * 1736? * Ural mining works * G.V.H.
79. Wagner Iohann Andreas * (G) * ?? * 17361745? * Ural mining works * .
80. Wagner Karl * (G) * ?? * ~17501770 * Ural mining works * RGIA:1349-4-84;1349-4-165.
81. Waker * (B) * ?1802 * 17951802 * Lugansk * .
82. Walker * (B) * ?? * 1795? * Lugansk * .
83. Weidel Iohann Friedrich * (G) * ?? * 17191745? * Olonets & Ural mining works * .
84. Wikars * (B) * ?1802 * 1795? * Lugansk * .
85. Wittich * (G) * ?? * 17361745? * Ural mining works * .
86. Zimmermann Wolf Martin * (G) * ?? * 17191731 * Olonets & Ural mining works * .
Abbreviations: AC Address-Calendar: Total Staff of Russian Empire, numbers of years; RGIA The Russian State Historic Archives in St Petersburg; numbers of keeping-units: fund-list-file; G.V.H. G.V.Hasselblat, the oral report.
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